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What are the factors affecting the salinity of the sea water?

Salinity of seawater is affected by evaporation, precipitation, ice formation, and ice melting. Evaporation increases the salinity of seawater because when seawater evaporates, the salts are left behind, thus increasing their concentration.

What happens when water salinity increases quizlet?

What happens when water’s salinity increases? Freezing point decreases.

What effect will an increase in salinity have on density?

The density of water increases as the salinity increases. The density of seawater (salinity greater than 24.7) increases as temperature decreases at all temperatures above the freezing point. The density of seawater is increased by increasing pressure.

What are the three factors that affect seawater density?

Salinity, temperature and depth all affect the density of seawater.

How is salinity affected when freezing increases?

Deep, cold water During the freezing process, the salt in the sea water is rejected, thereby increasing the salinity of the remaining sea water. When the ice melts, the fresh water is released back into the ocean, thus freshening it.

What increases salinity?

Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice both increase the salinity of the ocean. However these “salinity raising” factors are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity such as the continuous input of fresh water from rivers, precipitation of rain and snow, and melting of ice.

What does salinity mean?

The term “salinity” refers to the concentrations of salts in water or soils. Salinity can take three forms, classified by their causes: primary salinity (also called natural salinity); secondary salinity (also called dryland salinity), and tertiary salinity (also called irrigation salinity).

Why does salinity occur?

Salinity occurs when the water table rises, bringing natural salts to the surface; in sufficient quantity, these salts become toxic to most plants. Land clearance can also lead to soil erosion and, when it results in a changing water balance, to dryland salinity.

How can salinity be prevented?

Methods of prevention

  1. monitor groundwater levels and the amount of salt in the land and water.
  2. encourage preventative actions to stop salt moving towards the surface.
  3. stop further loss of deep-rooted native vegetation in high-risk areas as well as areas that contribute groundwater to them.

How do humans cause salinity?

Human activities can cause salinization through the use of salt-rich irrigation water, which can be exacerbated by overexploitation of coastal groundwater aquifers causing seawater intrusion, or due to other inappropriate irrigation practices, and/or poor drainage conditions.

Where does salinity occur?

Irrigation salinity in NSW occurs mainly in southern NSW in the Murray and Murrumbidgee irrigation areas. Areas of land affected by irrigation salinity have dropped sharply in the last 10 years, from 14 000 hectares to less than 500 hectares in the Murray Valley.

What is the impact of salinity?

Salinity affects production in crops, pastures and trees by interfering with nitrogen uptake, reducing growth and stopping plant reproduction. Some ions (particularly chloride) are toxic to plants and as the concentration of these ions increases, the plant is poisoned and dies.

How can salinity affect the ecosystem?

Excess salt affects overall soil health, reducing productivity. It kills plants, leaving bare soil that is prone to erosion. wetlands – as salinity increases over time, wetlands become degraded, endangering wetland species and decreasing biodiversity.

How much land is affected by salinity?

Currently 5% of New South Wales is affected by dry land salinity, and around 50% is under threat.

Does salt affect pH in soil?

The amount of salt in the soil water mixture affects the pH value measured. Because the salt concentration varies in the soil by year and season, the pH values measured will also vary.

Why is high salinity bad for plants?

Salinity affects almost all aspects of plant development including: germination, vegetative growth and reproductive development. Because many salts are also plant nutrients, high salt levels in the soil can upset the nutrient balance in the plant or interfere with the uptake of some nutrients (Blaylock et al., 1994).

Do plants need potassium?

Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. It’s classified as a macronutrient because plants take up large quantities of K during their life cycle. Minnesota soils can supply some K for crop production, but when the supply from the soil isn’t adequate, a fertilizer program must supply the K.

Do plants use sodium?

Function. Sodium is not an essential element for plants but can be used in small quantities, similar to micronutrients, to aid in metabolism and synthesis of chlorophyll.

Does sodium affect plant growth?

The effects of sodium in plants are similar to those of exposure to drought. Buildup of sodium in plants causes toxic levels that cause stunted growth and arrested cell development. Sodium in soil is measured by extracting the water in a laboratory, but you can just watch your plant for wilting and reduced growth.