Density-dependent factors have varying impacts according to population size. Density-independent factors are not influenced by a species population size. All species populations in the same ecosystem will be similarly affected, regardless of population size. Factors include: weather, climate and natural disasters.

## What is a density independent factor?

Density-independent factor, also called limiting factor, in ecology, any force that affects the size of a population of living things regardless of the density of the population (the number of individuals per unit area).

## What is the difference between dependent and independent factors?

Answer: Just like an independent variable, a dependent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is something that depends on other factors. (Independent variable) causes a change in (Dependent Variable) and it isn’t possible that (Dependent Variable) could cause a change in (Independent Variable).

## What does it mean if two variables are independent?

The first component is the definition: Two variables are independent when the distribution of one does not depend on the the other. If the probabilities of one variable remains fixed, regardless of whether we condition on another variable, then the two variables are independent.

## How do you know if a joint distribution is independent?

Independence: X and Y are called independent if the joint p.d.f. is the product of the individual p.d.f.’s, i.e., if f(x, y) = fX(x)fY (y) for all x, y.

## Can something be independent and mutually exclusive?

Mutually exclusive events cannot happen at the same time. For example: when tossing a coin, the result can either be heads or tails but cannot be both. This of course means mutually exclusive events are not independent, and independent events cannot be mutually exclusive.

## What is the union of two independent events?

Union is denoted by the symbol ∪ . The general probability addition rule for the union of two events states that P(A∪B)=P(A)+P(B)−P(A∩B) P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) , where A∩B A ∩ B is the intersection of the two sets.

## Is Union and or or?

Unions. An element is in the union of two sets if it is in the first set, the second set, or both. The symbol we use for the union is ∪. The word that you will often see that indicates a union is “or”.

## Are events independent of themselves?

The only events that are independent of themselves are those with probability either 0 or 1. That follows from the fact that a number is its own square if and only if it’s either 0 or 1. The only way a random variable X can be independent of itself is if for every measurable set A, either Pr(X∈A)=1 or Pr(X∈A)=0.

## Which of the following is the correct definition for independent events?

The correct answer is b. “Independent” refers to a relation between events, not probabilities. The probability of one event happening does not affect the probability of another event happening.

## Are the events heart and face card independent?

In this case, the events are only independent if P(G) = 0, i.e. there are no face cards in the deck. Excluding aces, 12 are face cards (K, Q, J of spades; K, Q, J of hearts; K, Q, J of clubs; and K, Q, J of diamonds). 6 are black face cards (K, Q, J of spades and clubs).

## Do independent events add up to 1?

So, no, independent events do not necessarily add up to 1, but it may happen by coincidence.